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Mortons Neuroma Overview


plantar neuromaA Morton’s neuroma usually develops between the third and fourth toes. Less commonly, it develops between the second and third toes. Other locations are rare. It also is rare for a Morton’s neuroma to develop in both feet at the same time. The condition is much more common in women than men, probably as a result of wearing high-heeled, narrow-toed shoes. This style of shoe tends to shift the bones of the feet into an abnormal position, which increases the risk that a neuroma will form. Being overweight also increases the risk of a Morton’s neuroma.


Although the exact cause for this condition is unclear, a number of factors can contribute to the formation of a neuroma. Biomechanical deformities, such as a high-arched foot or a flat foot, can lead to the formation of a neuroma. These foot types bring on instability around the toe joints, leading to the development of the condition. Trauma can cause damage to the nerve, resulting in inflammation or swelling of the nerve. Improper footwear that causes the toes to be squeezed together is problematic. Avoid high-heeled shoes higher than two inches. Shoes at this height can increase pressure on the forefoot area. Repeated stress, common to many occupations, can create or aggravate a neuroma.


Neuroma pain is classically described as a burning pain in the forefoot. It can also be felt as an aching or shooting pain in the forefoot. Patients with this problem frequently say they feel like they want to take off their shoes and rub their foot. This pain may occur in the middle of a run or at the end of a long run. If your shoes are quite tight or the neuroma is very large, the pain may be present even when walking. Occasionally a sensation of numbness is felt in addition to the pain or even before the pain appears.


During the exam, your doctor will press on your foot to feel for a mass or tender spot. There may also be a feeling of “clicking” between the bones of your foot. Some imaging tests are more useful than others in the diagnosis of Morton’s neuroma. Your doctor is likely to order X-rays of your foot, to rule out other causes of your pain such as a stress fracture. Ultrasound. This technology uses sound waves to create real-time images of internal structures. Ultrasound is particularly good at revealing soft tissue abnormalities, such as neuromas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using radio waves and a strong magnetic field, an MRI also is good at visualizing soft tissues. But it’s an expensive test and often indicates neuromas in people who have no symptoms.

Non Surgical Treatment

Sclerosing alcohol injections are an increasingly available treatment alternative if the above management approaches fail. Dilute alcohol (4%) is injected directly into the area of the neuroma, causing toxicity to the fibrous nerve tissue. Frequently, treatment must be performed 2-4 times, with 1-3 weeks between interventions. An 60-80% success rate has been achieved in clinical studies, equal to or exceeding the success rate for surgical neurectomy with fewer risks and less significant recovery. If done with more concentrated alcohol under ultrasound guidance, the success rate is considerably higher and fewer repeat procedures are needed. Radio Frequency Ablation is also used in the treatment of Morton’s Neuroma The outcomes appear to be equally or more reliable than alcohol injections especially if the procedure is done under ultrasound guidance.

Surgical Treatment

About one person in four will not require any surgery for Morton’s neuroma and their symptoms can be controlled with footwear modification and steroid/local anaesthetic injections. Of those who choose to have surgery, about three out of four will have good results with relief of their symptoms. Recurrent or persisting (chronic) symptoms can occur after surgery. Sometimes, decompression of the nerve may have been incomplete or the nerve may just remain ‘irritable’. In those who have had cutting out (resection) of the nerve (neurectomy), a recurrent or ‘stump’ neuroma may develop in any nerve tissue that was left behind. This can sometimes be more painful than the original condition.


Women, particularly those who wear tight shoes, are at greatest risk for Morton?s neuroma. The best way to prevent the condition is to wear shoes with wide toe boxes. Tight, pointed shoes squeeze bones, ligaments, muscles and nerves. High heels may worsen the problem by shifting your weight forward. Over time, this combination can cause the nerves to swell and become painful.


Posted May 30, 2017 by annabellperia in Uncategorized

Precisely What Can Result In Tendon Pain In The Achilles ?


Achilles TendinitisAchilles tendinitis is an overuse injury of the Achilles (uh-KIL-eez) tendon, the band of tissue that connects calf muscles at the back of the lower leg to your heel bone. Under too much stress, the tendon tightens and is forced to work too hard. This causes it to become inflamed (that?s Achilles tendinitis), and, over time, can produce a covering of scar tissue, which is less flexible than the tendon. If the inflamed Achilles continues to be stressed, it can tear or rupture. Achilles tendinitis most commonly occurs in runners who have suddenly increased the intensity or duration of their runs. It?s also common in middle-aged people who play sports, such as tennis or basketball, only on the weekends. Most cases of Achilles tendinitis can be treated with relatively simple, at-home care under your doctor?s supervision. Self-care strategies are usually necessary to prevent recurring episodes. More-serious cases of Achilles tendinitis can lead to tendon tears (ruptures) that may require surgical repair.


Achilles tendonitis is an overuse injury. Too much too soon is the common cause of overuse injuries, however other factors can contribute to developing the condition. An increase in activity, either distance, speed or a sudden change to running up hills. As a rule of thumb distance runners should increase their mileage by no more than 10% per week. A change of footwear or training surface for example suddenly running on soft sand can cause the heel to drop lower than normal making the tendon stretch further than it is used to. Weak calf muscles can tighten or go into partial spasm which again increases the strain on the achilles tendon by shortening the muscle. Running up hills – the achilles tendon has to stretch more than normal on every stride. This is fine for a while but will mean the tendon will fatigue sooner than normal. Overpronation or feet which roll in when running can place an increased strain on the achilles tendon. As the foot rolls in (flattens) the lower leg also rotates inwards which places twisting stresses on the tendon. Wearing high heels constantly shortens the tendon and calf muscles. When exercising in flat running shoes, the tendon is stretched beyond its normal range which places an abnormal strain on the tendon.


The pain associated with Achilles tendonitis can come on gradually or be caused by some type of leg or foot trauma. The pain can be a shooting, burning, or a dull ache. You can experience the pain at either the insertion point on the back of the heel or upwards on the Achilles tendon within a few inches. Swelling is also common along the area with the pain. The onset of discomfort at the insertion can cause a bump to occur called a Haglund’s deformities or Pump bump. This can be inflammation in the bursa sac that surrounds the insertion of the Achilles tendon, scar tissue from continuous tares of the tendon, or even some calcium buildup. In this situation the wearing of closed back shoes could irritate the bump. In the event of a rupture, which is rare, the foot will not be able to go through the final stage of push off causing instability. Finally, you may experience discomfort, even cramping in the calf muscle.


Examination of the achilles tendon is inspection for muscle atrophy, swelling, asymmetry, joint effusions and erythema. Atrophy is an important clue to the duration of the tendinopathy and it is often present with chronic conditions. Swelling, asymmetry and erythema in pathologic tendons are often observed in the examination. Joint effusions are uncommon with tendinopathy and suggest the possibility of intra-articular pathology. Range of motion testing, strength and flexibility are often limited on the side of the tendinopathy. Palpation tends to elicit well-localized tenderness that is similar in quality and location to the pain experienced during activity. Physical examinations of the Achilles tendon often reveals palpable nodules and thickening. Anatomic deformities, such as forefoot and heel varus and excessive pes planus or foot pronation, should receive special attention. These anatomic deformities are often associated with this problem. In case extra research is wanted, an echography is the first choice of examination when there is a suspicion of tendinosis. Imaging studies are not necessary to diagnose achilles tendonitis, but may be useful with differential diagnosis. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of first choice as it provides a clear indication of tendon width, changes of water content within the tendon and collagen integrity, as well as bursal swelling. MRI may be indicated if diagnosis is unclear or symptoms are atypical. MRI may show increased signal within the Achilles.

Nonsurgical Treatment

Achilles tendinitis can typically be treated at home by following the R.I.C.E. treatment method. Rest. Rest the tendon by avoiding activities that irritate the tendon or increase swelling. However, this does not mean you should be completely inactive for long periods of time, as this can cause stiffness in your joints. It?s still important to stretch in order to maintain strength and flexibility and partake in activities that don?t put direct pressure on the tendon, such as bicycling. Ice. Apply ice to the affected area for 20-minutes at a time, every couple hours, as needed, to reduce swelling and pain. Compression. Use compression bandages to help reduce swelling. Elevation. Elevate your ankle above the level of your heart to help reduce swelling. It is particularly important to do this at night while you sleep. Simply place a pillow or two under your ankle to keep it elevated. Once the tendon has healed, be sure to gradually return to more strenuous activities. If flattened arches contributed to the injury, wear shoes with appropriate support or inserts to prevent the condition from progressing or recurring. If these non-surgical treatments have not been able to provide relief of symptoms after several months, surgery may be performed to remove inflamed tissue. However, this is not usually recommended unless all other options have been exhausted. Consult your doctor for more information about surgical treatment options.

Achilles Tendinitis

Surgical Treatment

Surgery is considered the last resort. It is only recommended if all other treatment options have failed after at least six months. In this situation, badly damaged portions of the tendon may be removed. If the tendon has ruptured, surgery is necessary to re-attach the tendon. Rehabilitation, including stretching and strength exercises, is started soon after the surgery. In most cases, normal activities can be resumed after about 10 weeks. Return to competitive sport for some people may be delayed for about three to six months.


Maintaining strength and flexibility in the muscles of the calf will help reduce the risk of tendinitis. Overusing a weak or tight Achilles tendon makes you more likely to develop tendinitis.

Posted March 7, 2015 by annabellperia in Uncategorized

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Treatments For Athlete’s Foot

Pain across the bottom of the foot at any point between the heel and the ball of the foot is often referred to as “arch pain” Although this description is non-specific, most arch pain is due to strain or inflammation Hallux Valgus of the plantar fascia (a long ligament on the bottom of the foot). Wearing inappropriate footwear or foot problems like athlete’s foot and Morton’s neuroma are some of the factors that cause burning feet sensation.

If changing your shoes isn’t helping to solve your foot pain, it is time for us to step in. Contact Dr. Jeff Bowman at Houston Foot Specialists for treatment that will keep your feet feeling great. Inserting arch support insoles in the shoes is also a good option.

Pain often occurs suddenly and mainly around the undersurface of the heel, although it often spreads to your arch. The condition can be temporary, but may become chronic if you ignore it. Resting usually provides relief, but the pain may return. Heel spurs are bony growths that protrude from the bottom of the heel bone, and they are parallel to the ground. There is a nerve that runs very close to this area and may contribute to the pain which occurs.Plantar Fasciitis,Pes Planus,Mallet Toe,High Arched Feet,Heel Spur,Heel Pain,Hammer Toe,Hallux Valgus,Foot Pain,Foot Hard Skin,Foot Conditions,Foot Callous,Flat Feet,Fallen Arches,Diabetic Foot,Contracted Toe,Claw Toe,Bunions Hard Skin,Bunions Callous,Bunion Pain,Ball Of Foot Pain,Back Pain

The spur occurs where the plantar fascia attaches, and the pain in that area is really due to the plantar fascia attachment being irritated. However, there are many people with heel spurs who have no symptoms at all. Haglund’s deformity is a bony growth on the back of the heel bone, which then irritates the bursa and the skin lying behind the heel bone. Achilles tendinopathy is degeneration of the tendon that connects your calf muscles to your heel bone. Stress fractures are common in military training.Plantar Fasciitis,Pes Planus,Mallet Toe,High Arched Feet,Heel Spur,Heel Pain,Hammer Toe,Hallux Valgus,Foot Pain,Foot Hard Skin,Foot Conditions,Foot Callous,Flat Feet,Fallen Arches,Diabetic Foot,Contracted Toe,Claw Toe,Bunions Hard Skin,Bunions Callous,Bunion Pain,Ball Of Foot Pain,Back Pain

Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa: A condition that causes blistering of the skin because of a mutation of a gene which in normal conditions helps in the formation of thread-like fibers that are anchoring filaments, which fix the epidermis to the basement membrane. Kanner Syndrome: Also referred to as Autism, this is one of the neuropsychiatric conditions typified by deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and abnormally repetitive behavior. Kaposi’s Sarcoma: A kind of malignancy of the skin that usually afflicts the elderly, or those who have problems in their immune system, like AIDS. For example, a year of perfect health is regarded as equivalent to 1.0 QALY.

Posted January 2, 2015 by annabellperia in Uncategorized

Hammer Toe (Toe Job, Toe Augmentation, Or Toe Shortening)

Toe pain can be caused by medical conditions that involve the toe either directly or indirectly. For instance, a bunion is a condition that affects the big toe joint, whereas tarsal tunnel syndrome involves the tarsal tunnel that is located near the ankle bone. Pain in the toes is a symptom that is common for both these conditions. Apart from carpal tunnel syndrome, ingrown toenail, and bunion, toe pain at night could be a symptom of gout, peripheral neuropathy, hallux rigidus and Morton’s neuroma. The underlying causes may vary from one person to another.

These are just some of the tips for you to get rid of your unpleasantly looking hammer toes. After following them, in no time, you can already have the perfectly shaped toes that you have been wanting for so long. Most of the time, you’re going to find that you may have to consult with a Doctor to get it surgically removed. If this is the case, you may find that you will want to talk with your insurance company to ensure that they will cover it. By doing so, you will find that there are many alternatives.hammer toe pads

A hammertoe caused by inappropriate footwear can be corrected by wearing properly fitting shoes. If a high arch caused the condition, wearing toe pads or insoles in your shoes can help. These pads work by shifting your toe’s position, which relieves pain and corrects the appearance of your toe. You can usually use over-the-counter cushions, pads, or medications to treat bunions and corns. However, if they are painful or if they have caused your toes to become deformed, your doctor may opt to surgically remove them. 17.Get a regular massage. Massage can really help with delayed muscle soreness and fatigue from the abnormal stress from high heeled shoes.

What wasn’t so simple, though, was making up for the money Duffy’s had lost. It was only closed for three weeks after the tornado, but the tourists who normally thronged into Utica on summer days on their way to Starved Rock were taking other routes. They’d heard about the disaster and, according to what Lisle Elsbury was picking up here and there, they figured Utica was still in disarray. That exasperated him, but what could he do? Some afternoons Bimm would drive out to the site of her new house and just stand in the yard, taking it all in, while the wind fingered its way through the trees.

The earlier a hammertoe is diagnosed, the better the prognosis and treatment options. Your doctor will be able to diagnose your hammertoe with a simple examination of the foot and your footwear. He or she may take an x-ray to check the severity of the condition. You may also be asked about your symptoms, your normal daily activities, and your medical and family history. It is possible that simply changing footwear is the remedy, however, if your case is more severe and you have pain when you walk, the fix may require surgery. Talk to your doctor to see what the right course of action is for you.

Posted June 12, 2014 by annabellperia in Uncategorized

Running Shoes For High Arches

My feet have always been labor intensive. When I first learned to walk, our family doctor advised my mother that my high arches were a problem. This led to many years of tears over black patent leather Mary Janes and later penny loafers. Instead of these pretty and popular shoes, my feet were forced into leather lace up shoes with design features appealing only to women over 90 who were legally blind to boot. Thus, shoes were a source of shame and humiliation long before my feet ever started bothering me.

As a woman, you will probably be lighter than a man of the same height, which means the cushioning in the soles of your running shoes needs to be less dense to produce bounce back. Bounce back is the springy effect of the shoe when you apply pressure to the sole with your foot and release during normal running motion. Men weigh more so the sole needs to be denser to account for their weight. To ensure maximum bounce back, look for shoes that have been designed specially for women, with a lower-density sole. You Might Also Like Find Your Foot Type

People with high, stiff arches are probably more susceptible to bony injuries on the outside of their foot, ankle, and leg, while people with flat and flexible arches are more likely to get soft tissue injuries and problems on the inside of their lower body. While low-arched runners seem to get a better bargain, don’t forget that Achilles injuries , muscle strains, or other soft tissue problems can be just as disruptive as a stress fracture or stress reaction Hope this makes sense but does anybody have any ideas? Going to a foot doctor isnt an option right now. College funds wont permit it for a few months.

Feet come in all shapes and sizes. Long or short, chubby or skinny, pointy or flat. When it comes to runners, the arch is one of the key parts about the feet to be aware of. Both high and low arches can be problematic for runners, but high arches pose a special risk of causing problems elsewhere in the body. Of course, your foot is just one part of t he complex ballet of motions that is running. For a truly complete analysis of your gait , contact our friends at the iRun store in Miami.

Treatment for the high arch foot depends on what is going on. With muscle weakness or balance issues a person really needs to see a podiatrist. If it is generalized foot pain they seek relief for a soft orthotic or change in shoes can be helpful. If calluses are present it is usually due to too much pressure in the area. Lotion, callus trimming and a good arch support are worth a try. What to expect at Dr’s Office If you are seeking a business opportunity in Singapore that will give you attractive profit margins, happy customers and high job satisfaction, call us now to find out more.

Women’s Shoes – Wearing high heels with a narrow toe box causes deformities like corns and hammer toes, knee pain, bunions, and lower back pain. An ideal women’s shoe is one that has a square, wide toe box with a heel that is lower than two inches. If you must wear higher heels, choose a shoe with a platform under the toe box to decrease the overall stress on the foot pad. Midsole – The material that sits between the top area of the shoe and the outer sole is the midsole. Soft material should be used for the midsole to provide shock absorption.

High arch shoes are those with a significant cushioning and flexibility. Shoes for under pronators need to have a soft mid sole, which can absorb shock. High arch support shoes should have at least a medial or arch side support. For runners who are under pronators, the high arch shoes are necessary to rectify the pronation and help them run fast and efficiently and with minimum injuries. A very important thing while choosing high arch running shoes required to be flexible is that the forefeet of people having arched feet are rigid. The shoe’s flexibility makes up for the rigidness of the foot.

Posted May 30, 2014 by annabellperia in Uncategorized

Foot Deformities In CT

People, who are on their feet for extended periods of time , such as teachers or nurses , are at higher risks for Plantar Fasciitis because of the hard surface s that they stand on all day. Exercises like strenuous dancing or running over long distances may put unnecessary stress on the heel s of the feet Injury risk increases when these exercises are performed without proper stretching before and after. Vamp – This section covers the top of the foot and may be closed with snaps, laces, or fabric. The vamp should be snug to hold the foot firmly in place but loose enough to avoid pain and numbness.

The symptoms of this type of foot can vary and are hard to predict. Depending on what type of shoe gear someone wears will also predict their symptoms. Symptoms can include pain in the metatarsal region, constant ankle sprains with weak ankles, Achilles tendonitis, difficulty with shoe fitting, stress fracture, and knee pain, just to name a few. Formation on of hammertoes is a common side effect of a long lasting cavus foot type. If subluxation or dislocation of the joint has occurred at the ball of the foot then additional repair of what’s called the plantar plate is required as additional repair to the toe.

As a runner, you need to make sure your feet are taken care of. Any damage to your feet should be avoided at all costs. It’s really only a matter of wearing the right model of running shoes and taking the time to determine your foot type is a small price to pay. Your feet are well worth the investment. Never engage in cardio activity unless you are pain-free. Cycling is great because it eliminates heel impact, and promotes a calf and arch stretch. Be patient. PF is by nature a stubborn condition that must run its course. It may take up to one year to resolve.

The symptoms of a high arch foot will vary depending on how severe the condition is and the activity levels of the person with it. Most will have no pain or any other symptoms. Symptoms may vary from a mild problem with shoe fitting to significant disability An accurate diagnosis is important because the underlying cause of cavus foot largely determines its future course. If the high arch is due to a neurologic disorder or other medical condition, it is likely to progressively worsen. On the other hand, cases of cavus foot that do not result from neurologic disorders usually do not change in appearance.

Physical therapy may also be prescribed to stretch and strengthen the muscles of the lower leg. Tight calf muscles and weak muscles along the outside of the lower leg (peroneal muscles) are often present in pes cavus. While therapy cannot change the shape of the foot, it may be able to help with pain control and function. Because the foot is usually rolled inward along with the high arch, the individual is susceptible to chronic ankle sprains and some reactive muscle strengthening may be beneficial, along with ankle bracing. The high arched feet in these paintings demonstrate a similar pattern to the pediagraph imprint of a pes cavus foot.

The researchers found increased BMI to be strongly associated with non-specific foot pain in the general population, and with chronic plantar heel pain in a non-athletic population. Inconclusive evidence was found for the association between BMI and hallux valgus, tendonitis, osteoarthritis, and flat foot. Two studies were found that reported a reduction in foot symptoms following weight-loss surgery. A combination of any or all of these elements can also be seen in a ‘combined’ type of pes cavus that may be further categorized as flexible or rigid. 9 Well there it is girls! Accept the challenge and have fun. Follow these guidelines and you’ll be “Dancing with the Stars”.

Posted May 29, 2014 by annabellperia in Uncategorized

Plantar Fasciitis Surgery

Tight calf muscles can contribute to plantar fasciitis. Keeping these muscles flexible can help relieve and avoid plantar fascia pain. Stand with your hands against a wall, with the leg you are wishing to stretch behind the other leg. The heel of the back leg should remain planted on the ground throughout the entirety of the stretch. Lean slowly forward while bending the front leg. A slight stretch should be felt in the middle of the calf of the back leg. The stretch should be repeated six to eight times and held for 15 to 20 seconds each time.

During my yoga teacher training program , we have been learning a lot about anatomy. We are studying not only muscles and bones but we are looking at the whole body and its fascial and myofascial linkages – the dense, tough tissue that surrounds all of your muscles and bones, in effect connecting them in a big web. Basically, we’re not just looking at what muscle do individually but also how muscles influence (and are influenced) by other muscles and structures to which it is connected to through myofascial linkages. While you are waiting for the stretching to take effect, this product can make walking a whole lot more pleasant.

Barefoot, stand as tall as you can on your toes. Balance for a moment and then begin walking forward with slow, small steps (take one step every one to two seconds, with each step being about 10 to 12 inches in length). As you do this, maintain a tall, balanced posture. Be sure to dorsiflex the ankle and toes of the free (moving-ahead) leg upward as high as you can with each step, while maintaining your balance on the toes and ball of the support foot. Walk a distance of 20 metres for a total of three sets, with a short break in between sets.

It has two air cells joined by a tube, one under the heel, one behind the Achilles. The bottom air cell acts as a pillow when you walk on it, slowly letting the air move to the other cell to cushion the impact. When you swing your leg forward through the air, the pressure from the Achilles pushes the air back, ready for the foot to land again. Recently, the pain began. It started with just a little soreness in his right heal after a long day of work. He didn’t mention it to me right away, but after a couple of weeks, the pain started to really become severe.plantar fasciitis brace

A night splint holds the foot at 90 degrees during your sleep. The aim of the splints is to keep your foot and calf muscles stretched during the night. Normally during rest the plantar fascia and calves tend to tighten and shorten. So when you wake up in the morning and take your first steps, the fascia are being pulled all of a sudden, causing the sharp pain in the heel. Slowly lean your body towards the wall while keeping in mind that your feet must remain flat on the floor. Hold your position for 20 seconds and straighten up to relax. Repeat this process for ten times. (this web site) was ranked by visitors as the most beneficial “treatment”, indicating visitors believe information is a key to getting better. Visitors are frequently very thankful for because it shows them they are not alone or crazy as is often implied by friends, family, co-workers, and doctors. Purchasing plantar fasciitis shoes is not that difficult. However, if you are confused about buying them, you can consult with plantar fasciitis consultants who would conduct exhaustive testing of your feet and recommend the appropriate type of shoes. Choosing and wearing the right pair of shoes will certainly lead to pain relief in the feet.

Do not resume training where you left off. Depending on how much time you missed, you may need to start at 25% – 50% of your usual program and increase 10% or so a week from there or as instructed by your physical therapist, doctor or coach. Replace worn shoes and consider a replacement insole in ALL of your shoes for optimal support and cushion. Unlike a typical fracture where bone breaks from a physical force, a stress fracture results from the overuse or overstressing of normal bone which eventually damages the bone itself. This usually occurs with over-exercising or certain anatomic problems which make one susceptible to the problem.

You can get plantar fasciitis running shoes that are designed to protect your feet while running. These shoes are built with more durability than normal plantar fasciitis shoes because they have to handle the stress of your running. Running puts a lot of pressure on your heels and can greatly irritate plantar fasciitis. The best plantar fasciitis running shoes will prevent this. For people who need to dress out, dress shoes are important. There are special dress shoes for plantar fasciitis out there that you can look at getting. So you can be assured your feet are being protected even as you look your best.

The major benefit of these shoes comes in the form of prevention. Plantar Fasciitis shoes do more than help to fix the Plantar Fasciitis that has already occurred. The shoes work to keep the foot in a position that will keep it from becoming irritated once again. If you suffer from Plantar Fasciitis regularly you should seriously consider Plantar Fasciitis shoes. These shoes will offer the support that you need to keep your feet from being irritated. With less tension on the plantar fascia, the damage to ligament can be reversed. The tissue is allowed to heal faster and repair the micro-tearing, which has occurred at the heel bone attachment.

Posted May 27, 2014 by annabellperia in Uncategorized